Click on the links above to read about my medical background, explore some selected  medical references, and see some of my interests and hobbies.


Web Links and Resources

American Board of Internal Medicine   Board certification for internal medicine and subspecialties
American College of Cardiology   Professional guidelines on cardiovascular disease
American Heart Association   Patient and family resource for heart and stroke
CardioSmart   Heart and vascular disease information for patients. 
Pulse Heart Institute   My practice group in Washington State.
WebMD   General patient resource. Please read my description
Yale Medical School Thesis   My medical school thesis..

The American Board of Internal Medicine certifies physicians trained in internal medicine and its subspecialties. Doctors who have passed the examination are board certified. I am board certified in cardiovascular disease (cardiology) and interventional cardiology having successfully completed the required training and passed both examinations. I passed the board certification examination in internal medicine soon after finishing my residency training, but I allowed this certification to expire as is common practice for specialists; specialists generally do not spend enough time dealing with general health issues in daily practice to give the best advice for conditions not related to their own specialty. This board does not oversee physicians in other fields such as pediatrics, surgery, or family medicine as each discipline has its own governing board. 

The American College of Cardiology is the major professional organization in the United States focused on promoting scientific research and clinical excellence in cardiovascular medicine which encompasses both treatment of heart disease but also treatment of peripheral arterial disease which is a related condition. This organization is focused on the practicing cardiologist and publishes guidelines that are followed throughout the world. I have been a member of the American College of Cardiology since 2002. I am a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology (FACC) which designates that I have successfully passed the cardiology board examination and have colleagues who have vouched for my professional conduct.

The American Heart Association co-publishes the practice guidelines for cardiovascular disease but additionally advocates for education and awareness of heart disease and stroke prevention. The resources for patients and families are excellent. There are sections that describe warning signs for heart attack or stroke, explain lifestyle changes that can help you decrease your risk for heart attack and stroke, help you learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to help save someone who has a cardiac arrest, and teach you about certain cardiovascular topics.

CardioSmart is a web site launched in March 2008 by the American College of Cardiology to provide patients and their families with updated information about heart disease and cardiovascular health. There is information on the web site about major heart and vascular conditions, major diagnostic tests, and heart-related news. The American College of Cardiology co-publishes the guidelines for current cardiovascular disease diagnosis and treatment followed by cardiologists in the Unites States.  I expect this web site to be one of the most reliable sources available about heart disease. 

The Pulse Heart Institute is a partnership between Multicare Health System and a team of cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and vascular surgeons who with our staff strive to be the destination for heart health in the Pacific Northwest. We provide care in our ambulatory offices and also at all of the Multicare hospitals. We provide 24 hour services for emergency consultation and treatment of acute and critical heart and vascular disease. Because no single physician would be able to provide 24 hour services alone, you may find when you go to the hospital or have an urgent clinic visit that one of my colleagues will care for you on my behalf. Because we all practice the same evidence-based medicine, you can feel comfortable that you will continue to get the same, excellent care.

WebMD is a publicly traded, for-profit company that provides consumers with health-related information through sponsorship and advertising. I have looked at some of their descriptions such as heart attacks and atrial fibrillation, and I have found their information generally accurate and helpful. I think a resource like WebMD is a good starting place to learn about your disease whether you have just had a heart attack, you have high cholesterol, or you have questions about any other health condition. However, I have found some small errors, and of all the resources I have noted on my website this is potentially the least objective and potentially based on the least amount of scientific, rigorous review. If you should have any questions about what you have found in your reading about your condition in this or any other resource, please write it down and ask me at your next office visit.

Finally, my Yale Medical School thesis written in 1998 is online electronically. This basic science research which I was involved in as a medical student explored a novel way to try to treat cocaine addiction. I share this mostly as an example of my scientific though process and attention to detail. Clinically I have focused my training on heart disease rather than substance abuse specifically.

Trees on a Hill in Yellowston by Tobias Lee


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